Tall BP minimizing with extra dosage from potassium from the hookup spots Portland assortment from 1900 so you’re able to 4700 mg/d (49–122 mmol/d) might have been said to effect a result of BP decline in whenever 2 to help you six mm hg to have diastolic BP and two to four mm hg getting systolic BP. the latest higher variability anywhere between overall performance shows this new variability present in various other knowledge. concurrently, the result out of potassium into the BP is actually dependent on pretreatment BP level; age; race; sex; comorbid standards; intake out-of sodium, magnesium, calcium, or any other ions; diet; exercise; weight; style of potassium made use of; concomitant medicines; and time of play with. a list of the results of all of the meta-analyses with the negative effects of potassium into BP so far try provided from inside the Profile step 3.
Summary of meta-analyses from degree investigating the brand new hypertension-lowering ramifications of potassium. 25–twenty eight SBP ways systolic blood pressure level; DBP, diastolic hypertension.
Even if conflicting overall performance about your ramifications of potassium supplements into the BP was indeed stated within the scientific studies, 34, thirty five new examples have presented performance in keeping with that of the newest meta-study by Whelton and you can associates twenty-six (Desk II). Gu and you will colleagues thirty-six discovered that modest potassium supplements (sixty mmol KCl) pulled to own twelve weeks resulted in a decrease in systolic BP, not diastolic BP, during the a Chinese inhabitants. Furthermore, Kawano and you will colleagues 37 reported one a beneficial 4-day potassium supplements period (where 64 mmol/d regarding potassium got once the slow-release KCl) led to brief but tall reductions inside the work environment, household, and twenty-four-time BP for the Japanese group. Braschi and you can colleagues 38 further checked out the outcome from reduced-dose potassium supplementation with the BP and discovered one 24 mmol/d from slow-discharge KCl administered for six weeks lead to significant decrease in indicate arterial stress and you may diastolic BP for the suit volunteers.
Components for which Potassium Reduces BP
The newest homeostasis of sodium and you will potassium performs a crucial role during the endothelium-situated vasodilatation. 39 Salt retention reduces the synthesis regarding nitric oxide, a keen arteriolar vasodilator elaborated of the endothelial tissues, and you can advances the plasma number of asymmetric dimethyl-L-arginine, an enthusiastic endogenous substance away from nitric oxide production. 40 a nourishment high in potassium and grows in solution potassium, even into the physiological range, end in endothelium-established vasodilatation by the hyperpolarizing new endothelial cellphone courtesy arousal of your own sodium push and you may starting potassium avenues. 41 In addition, most other advised components wherein potassium can dictate BP are natriuresis, modulation off baroreceptor susceptibility, shorter vasoconstrictive susceptibility in order to norepinephrine and you will angiotensin II, enhanced solution and you can urinary kallikrein, improved salt/potassium On Pase hobby, alteration during the DNA synthesis, and you may growth inside vascular smooth muscle and sympathetic nervous system structure. 42, 43
Diet Advice to have Potassium
Maintaining an adequate intake of dietary potassium (>90 mmol [3500 mg]/d) has been recommended for the primary prevention of hypertension by the JNC 7.13 The Institute of Medicine has recommended a sodium intake <65 mmol/d (3.8 g/d) and an increase in potassium to 120 mmol/d. 44 In 2006, the American Heart Association issued new guidelines suggesting an increase in potassium intake to 120 mmol/d (4.7 g/d), which is the level provided in the DASH diets in which all food is supplied. 14 The Canadian Hypertension Society recommends that the daily dietary intake of potassium should be ?60 mmol, since this intake has been associated with a reduced risk of stroke-related mortality. 45, 46 The most recent European Society of Hypertension guidelines also support an increased potassium intake based on the DASH diet. 18 In addition, the 2003 World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension statement recommends a diet high in fruits and vegetables, a reduction of dietary sodium intake, and increased dietary potassium intake for reducing the incidence of hypertension. 16 Some sources of high-potassium, low-sodium foods are listed in Table III. 47