Association between parental separation and addictions in adolescents

Kendler KS, Schmitt E, Aggen SH, Prescott CA. Genetic and environmental influences on alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, and nicotine use from early adolescence to middle adulthood. Tapert SF, Schweinsburg AD, Barlett VC, Brown SA, Frank LR, Brown GG, et al. Blood oxygen level dependent response and spatial working memory in adolescents with alcohol use disorders. Ultimately, Kristin says, you can’t control everything about the way your teen interacts with social media, but you can help them create a positive sense of self that doesn’t require validation from an online world. Take time off from the apps.A 2022 study found that taking just one week off social mediaimproved participants’ overall level of well-being while reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety. On average, teens spend 1 hour and 27 minutes a day scrolling social media, an increase of 17 minutes from 2019. – Being a teen comes with the natural desire to want to fit in with classmates and “be cool”.

However, in many cases, criteria and tools used for adults are not always appropriate for diagnosing adolescents or children. This implies the need to prepare versions adolescence a period of addictions of scales for the diagnosis of behavioral addictions in adolescents, as many diagnostic methods prepared for adults cease to be accurate and reliable for young people.

It’s also important to pay attention to individual risk factors, including:

Teens who start drinking by age 13 have a 43% chance of becoming alcoholics. A few recommendations for the prevention of underage drinking are presented.

It is also perceived as a means of socialization, entertainment, and relaxation, thus popular among young people . In their long-term study, Block et al30 found that there were remediable psychosocial and behavioral risk factors in 3- and 4-year-olds that predicted drug use during adolescence. In short, for girls, the absence of resiliency and the lack of self-control during early childhood predict both marijuana and hard drug use in adolescence. Involvement with harder adolescence a period of addictions drugs seemed to represent an extension of the behavioral characteristics that predisposed to marijuana use in boys, while in girls additional psychopathological characteristics were usually present when harder drug use was evidenced. In another study, Luthar et al66 reported that women who abused drugs had a higher incidence of internalizing problems, eg, depression, anxiety, and withdrawn behaviors, during childhood and had more severe psychiatric symptoms as adults.

Why Resisting Drugs Is Harder for Teens

Although this is primarily related to substance abuse, more and more studies confirm their importance also in relation to behavioural addictions , including in children and adolescents (Conrod et al., 2013; Moffitt et al., 2011). In the literature, it is also emphasised that addictive behaviours can be a form of compensation for intrapersonal deficits such as low self-esteem or identity problems (Niemz, Griffiths, & Baynard, 2005; Israelashvili, Kim, & Bukobza, 2012). The Internet, and especially social media, give users an opportunity to create their own identity, which is not possible in the real world. Another function of addictive behaviours is to build relationships with others.

  1. Peer pressure can mediate in the development of pathological behaviours, including the use of psychoactive substances and other addictive behaviours .
  2. Teens often experiment with party drugs initially due to peer pressure but later, it is to chase a feeling of euphoria or relief from their problems.
  3. Consequently, the assumption that one can prevent alcohol dependence or other alcohol-related problems later in life by keeping young people away from drinking until age 21 or older sounds utopian.
  4. – Teens should always be able to come home to a healthy, safe household.
  5. Riggs PD, Winhusen T, Davies RD, Leimberger JD, Mikulich-Gilbertson S, Klein C, Macdonald M, Lohman M, et al.
  6. She knows that during adolescence the brain is particularly susceptible to lifetime addiction because it is still developing.
  7. But as it turns out, the adolescent brain is “deliberately” set up for risk-taking.

Conduct disorders were found more frequently in men who were in treatment for drug abuse. Early adolescent substance use dramatically increases the risk of lifelong substance use disorder . An adolescent sensitive period evolved to allow the development of risk-taking traits that aid in survival; today these may manifest as a vulnerability to drugs of abuse.

Substance Use and Abuse in Adolescents

The number of Internet users is growing exponentially worldwide, exceeding 2.5 billion active users, particularly adolescents . Teenagers with internet addiction are more likely to have divorced parents and emotional problems, with most of them being males . A study covering determinants of internet addiction during adolescence shows that 7% of adolescent internet addicts have dysfunctional and/or problematic family relationships . Children who were quick to anger, perceived themselves to be stressed, were resentful of parents‘ absence, or from families with conflicts had high drug use rates. These findings were confirmed by later studies including that of Chilcoat and Anthony70 who studied 926 youths and found children in the lowest quartile of parent monitoring initiated drug use at earlier ages. Multiple bibliographic databases, including MEDLINE and ERIC, were used to develop a comprehensive review of the literature on substance abuse prevention during the last 10 years. Selected indexing terms included substance abuse prevention, risk factors, and protective factors .

Results from the 2008 U.S. survey on drug use and health showed that individuals who started using alcohol at age 14 or younger were five times more at risk of lifetime alcohol use disorder as compared with those who first consumed alcohol after 21 years of age . During our pre-teen years, the area of the brain most responsible for reasoning grows immensely. That growth, however, is pruned back as we reach adolescence, making the prefrontal cortex less active during young adulthood. One’s teenage years, as a result, often involve the most risk-taking; they become the period in life in which a person grows impulsive, misbehaves, and experiments outside of their once-established boundaries.

Signs of Drug & Alcohol Abuse in Teens and Young Adults

Adolescence is a risk-taking period during which teens are more likely to try drugs. The part of the brain responsible for reasoning and decision-making becomes less active during this period. Evolutionarily, this change is attributed to the need for offspring to leave the safety of the nest, taking risks to find a life of their own.

  1. Below some useful findings related to dual diagnosis treatment seen from the perspective of developmental psychopathology.
  2. Evidence shows that certain forms of family therapy are the most effective treatments for substance abuse problems.
  3. And of course, the question remains whether addiction is a disorder or a symptom of different problems.
  4. Lebel C, Walker L, Leemans A, Phillips L, Beaulieu C. Microstructural maturation of the human brain from childhood to adulthood.
  5. Consequently, no matter how many “likes” their posts collect, teens won’t benefit if they substitute social media for real-life friendships.

Among the most widely disseminated and promoted curricula are the Drug Abuse Resistance Education curricula . Programs in prevention have developed a new nomenclature to denote the target audience and focus of the program.

Social Sciences

Preoccupation with drugs can crowd out previously important activities, and the way the teen views their self may change in unrealistic and inaccurate directions. Friendship groups may change and relationships with family members can become more distant or conflictual. Further bad signs include more frequent use or use of greater amounts of a certain drug, or use of more dangerous drugs, such as cocaine, amphetamines, or heroin. Persistent patterns of drug use in adolescence are a sign that problems in that teen’s environment exist and need to be addressed immediately. The compulsive engagement of young people in various forms of pathological behaviour can fulfill many important functions in their development. In general, the two most important are satisfying the need for stimulation and coping with stress1 (Grzegorzewska & Cierpiałkowska, 2017). The need for stimulation is related to the temperamental characteristics of the individual, which for a long time have been identified as important personal correlates of behavioural habits (Cierpiałkowska, 2010).

Weitere interessante Artikel...